Inference via machine learning
From proteomics to remote sensing, machine learning predictions are beginning to substitute for real data when collection of the latter is difficult, slow or costly. In this talk I will present recent and ongoing work that permits the use of predictions for the purpose of valid statistical inference. I will discuss the use of machine learning predictions as substitutes for high-quality data on one hand, and as a tool for guiding real data collection on the other. In both cases, machine learning allows for a significant boost in statistical power compared to "classical" baselines for inference that do not leverage prediction.